Diarrhea is defined as the passage of more watery stools three or more times per day. It is the second leading cause of death in children under five years of old. Loperamide and other antibacterial drugs are usually preferred for treating diarrhea. Loperamide may cause addiction and cardiotoxicity. Phyllanthus amarus S. is traditionally used in treating many health problems such as jaundice, urinary bladder disturbances, wound healing, skin ulcer, etc. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllanthus amarus S. (EEPA). The preliminary phytochemical screening of Phyllanthus amarus S. was performed. The antidiarrheal activity is evaluated for EEPA with doses 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. The models used to assess the antidiarrheal activity include charcoal meal test, castor-oil induced diarrhea, castor-oil enteropooling, and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea. The phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of saponins, tannins, triterpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, proteins, and carbohydrates in EEPA. In the charcoal meal test, the EEPA suppressed the propulsion of charcoal meals by reducing gastrointestinal motility (p<0.01). In castor oil-induced diarrhea, the EEPA treated animals showed a significant decrease in water and feed intake and a decrease in the weight of fecal matter when compared to castor oil-treated rats (p<0.01). In castor oil-induced enter polling in rats, the EEPA produced a decrease in the weight of the intestinal content by spasmolytic activity (p<0.01). In magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea, the EEPA treated groups showed a significant decrease in water and feed intake and a decrease in the weight of fecal matter (p<0.01). The EEPA appeared to inhibit diarrhea by reducing the absorption of water from the intestine. This is due to the presence of tannins in it. Plants and plant derivatives have important advantages such as they are cheap with less or no side effects. The findings in the present study confirm the antidiarrheal activity of the ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllanthus amarus S. thus providing the scientific basis for the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of diarrhea and its effects.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pharmaceutical Chemistry