Periodontal disease is the most common chronic inflammatory illness in humans, affecting the teeth’ supporting connective tissue and cementum, bone resorption, leukocyte infiltration, and periodontal pocket formation, such as the gum or gingival tissues the periodontal ligament. Periodontal disease is the most prevalent chronic inflammatory disease in humans, and its incidence has been increasing over the past decade. Fasting has been performed for millennia and has a role in adaptive cellular responses that reduce oxidative damage and inflammation, improve energy metabolism, and strengthen the cellular defense of the periodontal region. The current study was planned to investigate the impact of fasting regimens in improving periodontal health and ameliorating various oral and systemic inflammatory conditions in mice. Periodontitis was induced via ligature silk wire in mice. The parameters assessed were bone loss, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory markers. This study applied an intermittent fasting regimen (every other day fasting) for four weeks. The levels of pro-inflammatory markers (e.g., IL-2, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IFNγ, and CRP) and oxidative stress were increased in the serum samples of periodontal disease mice. The fasting regimen in these animals significantly decreased the serum inflammatory markers and lowered free radical production. This regimen showed less bone loss than the non-fasting groups at the ligature-periodontitis site. The study results showed that fasting could be beneficial for preventing bone loss and systemic inflammation in periodontitis.
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